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Foreign Copyright Laws
Tree-view chart on Foreign Copyright Law

This page is a supplement to the main illustrations page on Foreign Copyright at  This page provides specific information on the copyright laws of twenty countries, in an easy-to-navigate table.  As with all of the pages on this web site concerning copyright of non-U.S. works, a basic principle is: If the work was created in, copyrighted in, first published in — or is the work of a citizen of — a nation other than the United States, the work may be considered a foreign work for purposes of copyright.  If the user is certain that the work is considered an American work for U.S. copyright purposes, this section can be skipped.  (Copyright Transfers illustrations page)


Comparison of Copyright Laws of 20 Countries

This table indicates how to interpret the table which follows it, which compares significant aspects of copyright as it is written into the laws of twenty countries. The term “author” is used in this table to include other types of creators, such as composers, artists, filmmakers, etc.

Duration of Copyright L = Life of author
P = Publication date
C = Creation date
Suffixes to above:
e = plus end of year
j = through the next January 1
Example: “Pe + 50” means that copyright runs from the date the work was first published, then through the end of the year , plus 50 years. (Where “e” or “j” follows “L” or “P”, you don’t need to know the exact date within the year of publication or author’s death, because all copyrights governed by that year expire on the same day.)
DL = Deadline for initial publication to obtain copyright; if not published during this period, copyright cannot be obtained for the period following publication. (This restriction applies in some countries when a work remains unpublished several decades after its creation.)
What is meant by “Publication”:
“Publication” can be taken in the broad sense; many countries treat “public disclosure” (such as exhibition, broadcast or performance) as equivalent to publication insofar as controls the start date of a copyright. See also Film: start of copyright duration.
See also notes at bottom of this table.
Joint Authors

In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
LS = Last Surviving author

Anonymous, pseudonymous Works

In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
Most countries have rules providing that where the identity of an anonymous or pseudonymous writer becomes known, the term of copyright reverts to that determined by the author’s lifespan.
    Ireland and Japan have rules that where it is reasonable to assume that a work was created such a long time ago that it would not enjoy copyright on the basis of the author’s lifespan, there won’t be copyright based on publication date. (This prevents a centuries-old never-before-published work from securing copyright by surreptitiously claiming its author “anonymous” where the publisher knew revelation of the author’s identity would disclose that author having died too long ago to be entitled to copyright.)

Collective Works

In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
* = Does not apply to contributions within a collective work with a particular writer’s name designated
B = Both the collection as a whole and the individual contributions within it are covered by copyright, with the individual contributions getting protection based on what each author of individual contributions would receive were the contribution copyrighted in his name.

Posthumous Publication

In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
older N/A = Law has provisions that works which went into the public domain before the law recognized the present policy are not entitled to protection on its basis.
** = The “P + 25” right applies only to works which had enjoyed lifetime-plus protection. Works which are entitled to a flat number of years (e.g., corporate works) are not entitled to this protection once the maximum number of years have elapsed since creation.
NC = Corporate works (any that are not calculated on a lifetime-plus basis) are not eligible for protection beyond those afforded based on a number of years beyond creation.
    Russia gives an additional four years to authors who worked during or took part in the Great Patriotic War.


In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
Lit. = Same as for literary, etc. works
Corp = This rule applies to works copyrighted by corporation. (Exception applies in Canada where a corporation is at least majority-owned by an individual, whereupon that individual’s status as a person takes priority.) Where a work is not copyrighted by a corporation, see the rules for “duration” of individuals, joint authors, anonymous, pseudonymous and posthumous publication.

Sound Works

In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
Lit. = Same as for literary, etc. works


In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
B = Broadcast date
Most countries specifically state that duration is based on the initial broadcast of a program and that repeat broadcasts do not lengthen the duration.
    Poland specifically makes the points that its current law does not apply to broadcasts which occurred 20 or more years prior to the current law going into effect May 23, 1994.
    Several countries make the point that broadcast durations also apply to cable, satellite and wire.

Cinema Works

In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
anon prov = A provision for anonymous works treats publication date as if it were also the date of the death of the author, so that duration given is the same as the post-lifetime portion of a standard copyright duration.
See also notes at bottom of this table.

Determinant of Duration of Film Copyright

Where a country has “L +” (including “Le” or “Lj”) provisions, these abbreviations indicate which creators’ lives determine the duration:
D = Director
A = Adaptor of pre-existing work (if applicable)
S = Screenwriter
P = Plot/Story writer
W = Words Spoken (Dialogue)
M = Music composer (if original to film)
F = Producer
Anim = Director of Animation
N/A = Not Applicable; copyright duration is a fixed number of years
See also notes at bottom of this table.

Film: start of copyright duration

R = Sold, rented (or offered thereof)
E = exhibited, exposed, performed, “disclosed”
A = Been made permanent accessible to the public
Q = made available in quantity
In some countries, law makes a distinction between “Making Public” and “Publication of a Work” (or words to that effect). If so, and if a film merely exhibited but not sold (and thus “made public” but not “published”) is considered to be subject to copyright-duration limits starting with the first exhibition, this table will indicate “E”. This table is designed to indicate at what point in time “the clock starts” to tick down the amount of time that a film is protected by copyright. Thus, mere semantic differentiations whereby a country does not use the term “publication” are not noted in the table, which instead uniformly uses “publication” in the broad, inclusive sense by which it is used in the American Copyright Act.

Secondary forms of movies and audiovisual works

See the abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright.
See also the notes at the bottom of this table under “Cinema works”.
    Some countries specify types of audiovisual works that are not considered worthy of as lengthy a duration of copyright as theatrically-released movies. This row indicates which types of works are affected.

Particular Edition: Duration

In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
N/A = The country does not have specific provisions for this type of work. Readers should presume that the standard rules for copyright duration apply, presuming that the edition qualifies on the basis of the country’s minimum qualifications for creativity, uniqueness, effort expended in the creation of the work, etc.
    Where a country allows copyright protection for a particular edition of a work, it covers typography, typographical arrangement, and other unique aspects of an edition of a work that might otherwise not be protected by copyright. Others wanting to issue an edition of the public domain text will have to do their own typesetting or copy from an older edition.


In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
Lit. = Same as for literary, etc. works


In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
Lit. = Same as for literary, etc. works
rev = Revisions to databases within the protection period results in a new term of copyright (same length as before) which protects the earlier version as well
Comp = The rules for compilations apply to the data content, if original.
M = The time the maker gets. For databases that don’t have original content, this figure indicates the number of years of protection for the database as a product.

Computer-generated works

See the abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright

Government works

In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
O = Instances where the state is not the owner but would be but for contractual conditions, are covered here.
G = Laws, ordinances, official decrees and notices, constitutions, court decisions and grounds thereof, and other official works do not enjoy copyright protection.
A = Maps, drawings, paintings, engravings, music and poetry first published within a government report are entitled to copyright

Automatic Registration

O = Optional
F = Filing Requirements Exist
B = Benefits provided for filing
P = Penalties imposed for lack of registration

Notice Requirement

R = Required
O = Optional
S = Sanctions imposed for lack of notice (but copyright remains valid)
I = Information given in any notice is considered prima facie evidence about maker and date.
N = None

Ideas, expression

E = The expression of an idea can be copyrighted, but not the idea or factual basis itself
F = Fixing (writing or otherwise) of an expression is necessary for copyright
P = Partial completion of a work is enough to afford it automatic copyright protection
B = Broadcast signals are an exception to the rule that a work has to be fixed to enjoy copyright

Performance Rights

In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
C = Consent required of performers for their work to be made public in copies
Numbers given refer to the number of years that a performer enjoys performance rights following the occasion (the performance itself).
    France states (in Article L212-7) that contracts concluded prior to January 1, 1986, are governed by prior law.

Moral Rights

In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
Y = Yes
These generally cover such subjects as whether an author or creator is entitled to attribution and whether his consent is required for whether and how his work is to be published. Often, laws specifically state that these rights extend to dead authors, that use of their works must be done in such a way that it does not depreciate its value.
    Poland has a rule that correspondence from persons deceased less than twenty years cannot be disclosed without permission of the spouse or descendants.


In addition to abbreviations used in Duration of Copyright:
N = Articles on current political topics, news of the day and miscellaneous information may be reprinted without permission in daily and weekly newspapers.
F = Factual news articles are not entitled to copyright
S = Speeches delivered at public events are not entitled to copyright
L = Limited allowances, similar to fair use.

Fair Use

F = Fair Use allowed for scholarship, research, reporting, reviews, etc.
Q = Quotations allowed for scholarship, research, reporting, reviews, etc.
S = Public sculptures and/or architecture allowed to be photographed, sketched, and otherwise copied
N = Non-commercial uses (such as for religious and civil ceremonies and for school performances) are not considered infringements.
C = Making of a single copy of a given work for personal use (or research) is not considered an infringement.
R = Making of a single copy of a given work for research use is not considered an infringement.
L = Copying of audio and video works is at least quasi-legal owing to levies on blank media.
Australia has precise rules as to how much copying (as a percentage of the original) is permitted. (Section 40)

Time Shifting

Y = Yes, this country has provisions in the law for time-shifting. Typical privilege: “The making for private and domestic use of a recording of a broadcast or cable programme solely for the purpose of enabling the recording to be viewed or listened to at a more convenient time does not infringe copyright in the broadcast or cable programme or in any work included in the broadcast or cable programme.” (New Zealand, section 84)

Additional notes:
It’s pretty much universal that copyright laws state that where a work is published in separate volumes over the course of multiple years, each volume is considered to be copyrighted on the basis of the year that the particular volume was first published.

Work-for-hire provisions are in the laws of many countries.

In the information for cinema works, photo, sound works, etc., where a lifetime-plus timeframe is indicated (e.g., “L +” or “Le +”), the country’s rules concerning joint authors, anonymous and pseudonymous authors, and posthumous publication also apply.

Rules for sound works refer only to works that are issued as sound media. As is the case in the United States, the soundtrack to a movie is considered to be part of the movie and not as a separate work under the laws of several countries which specifically address the subject.

Additional information on duration of copyright:
Under the laws of France, in calculating the expiration date for the works of an author who was a citizen of France, the following timespans are not counted: 8/2/1914 through 12/31/1918 and (if the work was under copyright as of 8/13/1941) 9/3/1939 through 1/1/1948. (Articles L123-8 and L123-9) Furthermore, where an author died for France, the copyright is entitled to an additional thirty years. (Article L123-10) Thus, an author who died in late 1914 (perhaps among the first casualties of WWI) could receive seventy years added upon death, an additional dozen (plus fractions) for the two World Wars, plus thirty more for his sacrifice in uniform. His copyrights won’t expire until at earliest 2027.

Where countries have a rule about using either the year the work was first created or made available, copyright that expires cannot be regained through publication. Thus, if a work is created and then covered by copyright for the specified maximum number of years without the work being published (or otherwise made available), the work falls into the public domain without hope of copyright being recovered even if publication occurs thereafter. However, if publication occurs while the work is protected by copyright as an unpublished work (even if publication occurs during the final year of coverage), the clock starts again upon publication. In this way, in a country with a rule of “Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50)” a work may not go out of copyright until 99 years after creation (49 years protection prior to publication plus 50 years following publication equals 99 years). Where publication occurs only a few years following creation, the number of years of protection is reduced to just a few over fifty.

Where “P” stands for “publication,” it always means the initial publication date (said date as determined by the laws of the relevant country)

Cinema works:
Japan has a rule (Article 54(2)) which removes copyright protection from the underlying work(s) upon expiration of the copyright in a movie, but only insofar as it relates to the exploitation of the movie. (The underlying work continues to enjoy any protection it is still entitled to in its other respects.)

Many countries use the term “cinematographic works” to refer to movies, thus drawing a distinct line between movies shown in theaters and video productions created specifically for television, often shown live. Other countries use the more inclusive term “audiovisual works,” which leaves room for such fringe categories as home movies shot on formats of film intended for amateurs, animated GIFs playable only on computers, and wedding videos. This table is not intended to answer how such non-theatrical formats are treated within the laws of the specific countries.

Under South Africa law, “‘cinematograph film’ means the fixation by any means whatsoever on film or any other material of a sequence of images capable, when used in conjunction with any mechanical, electronic or other device, of being seen as a moving picture and of reproduction and includes the sounds embodied in a sound-track associated with the film, but shall not include a computer program”. (Underscoring added)

Explanation concerning the “Film: start of copyright duration” row:
Just as the United States has followed two different policies as to whether to count against the duration of copyright on a film the period when the film is merely “performed” (exhibited) but not “published” (sold or rented)(This distinction was built into American copyright law before the 1976 revisions; see the section on this web site for limited publication of movies), so too do other countries currently have policies different from one another on this matter. These data cells indicate (in broad form) which policy is followed.

Readers are cautioned that some countries may have changed their laws on this matter prior to their current version.  (The U.S. did in 1976.)  Thus, in the past, the effective date of source-country copyright of a foreign movie may not have been the premiere date, even if a newer movie begins its copyright on that basis.  This table does not exhaustively reference earlier versions of each country’s laws; changes for a few countries are noted below.  Because a difference of date between premiere and publication could affect a calculation concerning thirty-day windows inclusive of American publication, readers should consult earlier versions of the law in a source country before assuming it to be legal to copy without authorization a film on the basis of U.S.C. §104A(h)(6)(D).

Further information concerning “Film Copyright Determined by”:
Canada has different durations for films depending on whether the owner is a corporation or a person, and whether it is a dramatic or not. See designations elsewhere in this table. (Canada, sec. 11.1) Where the individual is the determiner, Canada defines the “maker” in this imprecise manner: “the person by whom the arrangements necessary for the making of the work are undertaken”.

Japan determines this by “those who, by taking charge of producing, directing, filming, art direction, etc., have contributed to the creation or that work as a whole,” excluding creators of underlying works (novels, pre-existing music, etc.). However, work-for-hire situations don’t count. (Sections 15 and 16)

New Zealand says that the “‘Director’, in relation to a copyright work that is a film, includes any person nominated by the director of the film to exercise the director’s rights” provided “[t]he nomination is made before the completion of the making of the film” and “[t]he person nominated makes a creative contribution to the making of the film”.

  Australia Canada Czech Republic France Germany Hong Kong India Ireland Italy Japan Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Poland Russia Slovak Republic South Africa Spain Sweden UK
Duration of Copyright Le + 70 Le + 50 L + 70 Le + 70 L + 70 Le + 50 Le + 60 Lj + 70 L + 70 L + 50 L + 75 Lj + 50 Le + 50 Le + 50 Lj + 70 L + 70 Le + 50 Lj + 70 Le + 70 Le + 70
Anonymous, pseudonymous Works Pe + 70 Pe + 50 or C + 75 (shorter) P + 70 Pe + 70 P + 70 (DL: C + 70) Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) Pe + 60 Pj + 70 P + 70 P + 50 P + 75 Pj + 50 P3 + 50 Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) Pj + 70 P + 70 Pe + 50 Pj + 70 P + 70 Pe + 70 (DL: Ce + 70)
Collective Works --   P + 70 Pe + 70 B -- -- Pj + 70 (DL: Cj + 70) B (Collection: P + 70) Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) -- Pe + 50 -- Pe + 50 -- Pj + 70 * -- Pj + 70 * -- --
Posthumous Publication Pe + 70 Pe + 50 (older N/A) P + 25 (if L + 70 past) Pe + 25 (if Le + 70 past) P + 25 (if L + 70 past) L + 50 Pj + 60 P + 25 (if L + 70 past) ** L + 70 Pj + 50 P + 75 (DL: L + 75) Pj + 50 L + 50 Le + 50 (if pub'd after Le + 40: P + 10) Pj + 70 NC Pe + 50 NC Pe + 25 Le + 70
Photos Lit. Corp: Ce + 50 Lit. Lit. Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) Lit. Pj + 60 Lit. C + 20 Lit. Lit. Lit. Lit. Lit. Lit. Lit Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) Cj + 25 Ce + 50 Lit
Sound Works Pe + 70 Ce + 50 P + 50 (DL: C + 50) Pj + 50 (DL: Cj + 50) Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) Pj + 60 Pj + 50 (DL: Cj + 50) P + 50 (DL: C + 50) Lit. C + 50 Pe + 50 Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) Lit. Lit. P + 50 (DL: C + 50) Pe + 50 Pj + 50 (DL: Cj + 50) Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50)
Broadcasts Be + 50 Be + 50 B + 50 Bj + 50 Be + 50 Be + 50 Be + 25 Be + 50 B + 50 Lit. B + 25 Be + 50 Be + 50 Be + 50 Lit. B + 50 Be + 50 Bj + 50 Be + 50 Be + 50
Cinema Works Pe + 70 Le + 50; Corp: Ce + 50 L + L + L + 70 Le + 50; anon prov Pe + 60 Lj + 70; P + 70 if pub'd posthumous Le + 70 P + 50 (DL: C + 50) C + 50 Person: Lj + 50; Corp: Pj + 50 Pe + 50 (DL: C + 50) Lit. Lit. L + 70 Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) L + 70; anon prov Le + 70 Le + 70; anon prov
Determinant of Duration of Film Copyright N/A See note DSWM DASWM DSWM DSWM N/A DF DSWM See note DAPSWM Anim N/A see note DASM DSM -- -- DASWM DSWM DSWM
Film: start of copyright duration R R E   A E E E E E E Q R E E E R E E E
Secondary forms of movies and audiovisual works News Ce + 50 documentary Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) Audiovisual fixation P + 50 (DL: C + 50)   Producer Rights P + 50 (DL: C + 50)       Producer Rights P + 50 (DL: C + 50)         Videograms: Pe + 50   Producers rights P + 50 (DL: C + 50)   Producers rights Pj + 50 (DL: Cj + 50) Producers rights Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50)  
Particular Edition: Duration Pe + 25 N/A P + 50 N/A P + 25 (DL: C + 25) Pe + 25 N/A Pj + 50 N/A N/A N/A -- Pe + 25 -- -- -- Pe + 50 -- -- Pe + 25
Software Lit. Lit. Lit. Lit. Lit Lit Lit. Lit. Lit. Lit. Lit -- Lit. Lit Lit. Lit. Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) Person: Lit; Corp.: Pe + 70 Lit. Lit.
Databases N/A N/A P + 15 (DL: C + 15) Pe + 15 (DL: Ce + 15) Pe + 15 (DL: Ce + 15) Lit. Lit. Ce + 15; rev Pe + 15 (DL: Ce + 15); rev Lit. Comp; M: 5 -- Lit Lit. Lit. C + 70; M: Pe + 15 (DL: Ce + 15) -- Pj + 15 (DL: Cj + 15); rev -- Pe + 15 (DL: Ce + 15); rev
Computer-generated works           Ce + 50   P + 70         Ce + 50             Ce + 50
Government works Lit, Drama, Music: Pe + 50 (if unpub'd: endless); Art: Ce + 50; Photo, Cinema: Pe + 50; O Pe + 50 -- -- G Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 75); if unpub'd Ce + 125. Pe + 60 Ce + 50 -- G Pe + 75 G G; specific editions: Pe + 25; other works: Ce + 100 G G G Lit, music, art: Pe + 50; photo, film, sound: same as non-govt. -- GA Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 75); if unpub'd Ce + 125.
Automatic Registration -- -- O O -- F O -- O O -- -- -- O O -- Movies: P -- -- --
Notice Requirement OI N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Sound and Photos: R N/A S -- -- -- O -- -- O -- -
Ideas, expression           F -- E,F E -- E -- F P E E F,B E -- F
Performance Rights 20, 50 50e P + 50 (DL: C + 50) Pj + 50 (DL: Cj + 50) Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) C 50e Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) P + 50 (DL: C + 50) Yes P + 50 (DL: C + 50) -- -- Ce + 50 Yes C + 50 -- Pj + 50 (DL: Cj + 50) Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50) Pe + 50 (DL: Ce + 50)
Moral Rights Y Y Y Y Y Y No Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y -- Y Y -- Y
News News film: Ce + 50 Lit. N/A S S Lit. -- -- S S -- N Lit. F F NS NSF S S L
Fair Use QS QL N -- C Q QS Q -- N QCN -- QR -- SN QCN QC QC C QC
Time Shifting Y -- -- -- -- Y -- Y -- -- -- -- Y -- -- -- -- -- -- Y

Works made before current laws:
Hong Kong current law indicates that films, photographs and sound recordings made before December 12, 1972, are not covered by the current law (except that films are protected insofar as their dramatic content, if any), but may still be covered by a 1956 law. (Schedule 2, sections 7, 8 and 13)

New Zealand current law indicates that films, engravings, “literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic work”, and unpublished works made before April 1, 1963, are not covered by the current law, although there are references to the 1913 law. (First Schedule, Transitional Provisions and Savings, 6, 12, 17-19, 40)

United Kingdom states that works which were under copyright before the 1988 law and which were entitled under that law to a later expiration date than under the new law, will continue under copyright until that later date. This schedule also discusses revived copyright for works which expired under the old law but which are entitled to longer copyright under the new law. (Schedule 1) (For more about “revived” U.K. copyrights, see the text and links elsewhere on this page.)

International considerations:
As shown on a table elsewhere on this page, most countries are parties to international treaties whereby they respect the copyrights of the other signatory countries. Within their own copyright laws, several countries have a provision stating that a copyrighted terminated (or expired) in the source country won’t be recognized in this country, regardless of any provisions permitting longer duration under the laws of the non-source country. Just as the United States has provisions in its §104A(h)(6)(D) precluding source-country copyright from applying where the work was “published in the United States during the 30-day period following publication in such eligible country”, so too do some other countries have rules stating that publication elsewhere in the 30 days prior to publication in that country is considered simultaneous with the non-source country and thus a determinant of which country’s law applies. Some countries (and sections) where this apply are Ireland (184.(2)), Netherlands (47, 42), Russia (5.2), and the United Kingdom (15(A)).

CITATIONS TO FOREIGN-RULES TABLE: The following two tables indicate (Table 1) the specific version of each country’s copyright law consulted for the above table, and (Table 2) the specific passage(s) containing the rule(s) involved.

Where the second column in the first table indicates “WIPO,” the laws of this country are among those of 120 countries [this number as of February 2007] accessible online from the World Intellectual Property Organization at

Country Source Specific Legislation
Australia Copyright Act 1968, Act No. 63 of 1968 as amended, compilation prepared 26 July 2007
Canada Copyright Act ( R.S. 1985, c. C-42 ), Updated to April 30, 2004
Czech Republic WIPO CZ029EN Copyright, Act, 07/04/2000, No. 121, Law No. 121/2000 Coll. of 7 April 2000
France Intellectual Property Code (Legislative Part), Mise a Jour Legifrance 15/06/03, Dernier texte modificateur Loi 2003-706 du 01/08/03 (JO 02/08/03)
Germany WIPO DE080EN Copyright, Law (Consolidation), 09/09/1965 (16/07/1998); Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights (Text of September 9, 1965, as last amended by the Law of July 16, 1998)
Hong Kong WIPO HK001EN Copyright, Ordinance (Cap. 528 Consolidation), 27/06/1997 (1999), No. 92 (No. 95)
India Indian Copyright Act, 1957 (amended)
Ireland Number 28 of 2000, Copyright and Related Rights Act
Italy WIPO IT112EN Copyright, Law (Consolidation), 22/04/1941 (02/02/2001), No. 633 (No. 95), Law No. 633 of April 22, 1941, Protection of Copyright and Rights Related to its Exercise (as last amended by Legislative Decree No. 95 of February 2, 2001)
Japan WIPO JP033EN Copyright, Law (Consolidation), 06/05/1970 (12/06/1998), No. 48 (No. 101)
Mexico WIPO MX003EN Copyright, Law (Consolidation), 05/12/1996 (19/05/1997), in English.  Also 1998 amendments translated from Spanish by computer software.
Netherlands WIPO NL001EN Copyright, Act (Consolidation), 23/09/1912 (27/10/1972)
New Zealand WIPO NZ015EN Copyright, Act (Consolidation), 1913 (15/12/1994), (No. 143), 1994
Poland WIPO PL010EN Copyright, Act, 04/02/1994, No. 83
Russia Law on Copyright and Related Rights (No. 5351-I of July 9, 1993 as amended July 20, 2004)
Slovak Republic WIPO Copyright Act, Act No. 383/1997 of 5th December 1997, as Changed and Amended by Act No. 234/2000 of 20th June 2000, Translation Version 1.2 (13. 9. 2001)
South Africa WIPO ZA002EN Copyright, Act (Consolidation), 20/06/1978 (1992), No. 98 (No. 125)
Spain WIPO ES070EN Copyright, Law (Consolidation), 12/04/1996 (06/03/1998), No. 1 (No. 5)
Sweden WIPO SE006EN Copyright, Act (Consolidation), 30/12/1960 (07/12/1995), No. 729 (No. 1274), Act on Copyright in Literary and Artistic Works (Law No. 729, of December 30, 1960, as last amended by Law No. 1274, of December 7, 1995)
United Kingdom Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, amended through 31st December 2003.

Locations within laws:

  Australia Canada Czech Republic France Germany Hong Kong India Ireland Italy Japan Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Poland Russia Slovak Republic South Africa Spain Sweden UK
Duration of Copyright 33 6 27.(1) L123-1 64 17(2) 22 24.(1), 35 25 51(2) 29. 37. 22(1) 36, 39 27, 27.6 18 3.(2) 26, 30 43 12
Joint Authors 80 9. (1) 27.(2) L123-2 65.(1) 17.(7) 22. 32(4) 26 51(2) 29. (I) 37 22(6)(a) 36(1) 27.4 18(2) 3(4) 28.(1) 43 12 (8)(a)(i)
Anonymous, pseudonymous Works 34 6.1 27.(3) L123-3 66.(1) 17.(3) 23 24(2) 27. 52(1) 29(II) 38. 17(3) 36(2) 27.3 18. (5) 3.(3)(a) 27.(1) 44 12.(3)
Collective Works   27.(4) L123-3 4.(1) 33 26 53(1) 38 36(3) 18.(3) 28.(2)
Posthumous Publication 33(3) 7.(1) 27(4), 28 L123-4 71.(1)   24 34, 33. 31 57 29(II). 38 67.(1)(b)(ii) 36(1), 38 27 18. (8) 3(2)(a) 27.(2) 44a 57(1)(b)(ii)
Photos   10. (1)     72.(3)   25.   92. 10   37-38 22 1.1(3) 27 6 g) 3.(2)(b) 128. 49a. 4(1)(a)
Sound Works 93 23. (1) 77 L211-4 85.(2) 18(2) 27 26 75   134. (Amendment 18/03/1993, Art. 12) 23(1) 1-1(9) 6.2 47 3.(2)(c) 119. 46 13A
Broadcasts 95 23. (1) 85 L211-4 87(2) 20 37(2) 27(1) 79(1), (5)   146 (Amendment 18/03/1993, Art. 12) 24(1) 98 13.1 50 3.(2)(d) 127 48 14(1)
Cinema Works 94 2, 6, 10. (1) 27.(5) L123-2 65.(2) 19 26. 25(1)-(2) 32 54(1) 138 37-38 23.(1) Lit. Lit. 18(4) 3.(2)(b) 28.(1), (2) 43 13B
Determinant of Duration of Film Copyright 2, 11.1 27.(5) L113-7 65.(2) 19 26 21 32 16 97 37 2 69 13.1   87 43 13B (2)
Film: start of copyright duration 29 2 4   6.(2) 17(5)(b)(ii) 2.(ff), 3 24.(1) 12 2.(xix), 4 16(III)-(IV) 47 9, 10.(4)(d) 6(1) 4 § 5 (9) 1.(5) 20.(1) 2 12(5)(b), 13B
Secondary forms of movies and audiovisual works 110 11.1 81.   94.(1)       78bis         95   49(4)   125. 46  
Particular Edition: Duration 96 87 70.(1) 21 29 25. 3.(2)(f) 15.
Software 10 2 (2)(1) L112-2 69a.(3) 4 2(o) 9(2) 1 10(ix) 102 2 74.1 7.1 1, 6 3.(2)(b) 98.(1) 1 3(a)(b)
Databases 93 L342-5 87d 4(1) 1(o) 325 102bis.(6)-(8) 12bis. (1) 107, 108 2(c) 3 3 18, 52e 136 Database Rights Act 17
Computer-generated works           17. (6)   30         17. (2)             12 (7)
Government works 176-181 12 5. 182 28A 191-193 13 29(II) 11 26, 27 4 8 6(3) 5 9 163
Automatic Registration 9(1) L111-1 2, (3) 45 6 75-78 4 9 No. R2140 (24/10/1980)
Notice Requirement 131, 132B, 132C 77, 90 17 9 146 -
Ideas, expression           4 (2) 17, 18, 19 1 14 15 3 6.4 6 2.(2) 4 3(2)
Performance Rights 189-195, 248A, 248CA 23. (1) 73 L211-4 82 200, 204, 205 38 291 85 89 122 89 37 46 112 45 181
Moral Rights 189-195 14 11. L121-1 12-14 89-100, 105, 106, 114 No 107. - 119 20 20 18 - 23 25 94-104 82-83 27-28 20 14-16 14-16
News 110 29.2 L122-5, 3.c. 48.(1).1 39-40 66 40 15 42 4 8 6, 25 12(8)(a) 33 25 30(2)
Fair Use 40, 41, 41A, 42, 65, 103A-103C, 29-29.2, 79-88 35 53, 57 38, 39 52 50, 51, 102 38 148, 150 42, 43, 44, 176 21, 22 21-23 12(1) 31, 32, 39 12 29-31A
Time Shifting 111(2) 79 250 84 70


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